Co Cristiano Ronaldo ma wspólnego z Sebastianem Walukiewiczem? Chodzi o pieniądze.

Polskie kluby sportowe coraz częściej korzystają z faktoringu

  • Większość sprzedawanych i pozyskiwanych przez kluby sportowe zawodników spłacana jest ratalnie, ale sprzedający nie chcą czekać długo na pieniądze.
  • Opóźnienia w płatnościach transferowych i z rat sponsorskich zwiększyły się w czasie pandemii.
  • To spowodowało, że kluby sportowe poszukiwały szybszej metody finansowania zakupów piłkarzy podczas okienka transferowego.
  • Niektóre kluby unikają upubliczniania informacji o finansowaniu przelewów od sponsorów za pomocą faktoringu, żeby nie urazić swoich darczyńców.

Co Cristiano Ronaldo ma wspólnego z Sebastianem Walukiewiczem? Chodzi o pieniądze.

Rok temu Cristiano Ronaldo przeszedł z Juventusu Turyn doManchesteru United. Dla nowej drużyny strzelił już blisko 20 goli, ale transfer nie został jeszcze spłacony. Wg danych opublikowanych przez włoski klub Ronaldo kosztował 15 mln euro (plus tzw. bonusy), ale płatność została rozłożona na 5 lat. Zatem ostatnia rata wpłynie w momencie, kiedy 37 – letni piłkarz będzie już miał ponad 40 lat. W tej chwili trudno nawet powiedzieć czy w ogóle będzie jeszcze wtedy grał w piłkę.

Na całym świecie, także w Polsce, większość sprzedawanych i pozyskiwanych zawodników spłacana jest ratalnie. Czasem trwa to lata, a czasem miesiące. Kluby sportowe muszą więc długo czekać na przelewy wynegocjowanych rat transferowych. Równocześnie podczas pandemii kluby spotkały się z dodatkowym kłopotem, bo zamknięte przez wiele miesięcy trybuny skutkowały brakiem przychodów z tak zwanego „dnia meczowego”. To oprócz biletów także catering, opłaty parkingowe, sprzedaż koszulek czy pamiątek i innych sportowych gadżetów. 

Kluby piłkarskie zaczęły szukać sposobów, żeby skrócić czas oczekiwania na przelewy rat za sprzedanych piłkarzy. Te zazwyczaj wykonywane są na podstawie kolejnych faktur. Działają tu przeciwstawne interesy dwóch stron umowy transferowej. Sprzedający piłkarza klub chciałby jak najszybciej otrzymać pieniądze. To pozwala mu inwestować w zakup innego zawodnika, który wypełni lukę po odejściu sprzedanego gracza, ewentualnie przeznacza pozyskane środki na bieżące finansowanie klubu. Kupujący wolałby natomiast zapłacić z opóźnieniem, w ratach w miarę jak dostaje kolejne transze z umowy z telewizją czy sponsorami. Takie sprzeczne oczekiwania spowodowały, że kluby sportowe zaczęły się do nas zgłaszać po to, by przyspieszyć płatności za kolejne transze za transfer piłkarza. Dzięki faktoringowi kluby pieniądze z transferów otrzymywały od razu (pomniejszone o prowizję), a faktorzy odzyskiwali je po kilku miesiącach, zgodnie z harmonogramem spłat ustalonych przy negocjacji przejścia zawodnika – mówi Mateusz Skowronek zeFaktor – firmy faktoringowej od wielu lat angażującej się w finansowanie klubów sportowych i e-sportowych.

W formule faktoringu przeprowadzono na przykład transfery Łukasza Walukiewicza do Empoli FC i Adama Buksy do New England Revolution. Obaj odeszli z Pogoni Szczecin, a pieniądze do klubu na mocy porozumienia transferowego miały wpłynąć później. Zarządzający pomorskim zespołem przekazali faktury do faktora, który po potrąceniu prowizji całe kwoty transferu od razu przelał na konta klubu.

Najdrożej wytransferowanym piłkarzem z polskiej ligi był Kacper Kozłowski, za którego angielski Brighton & Hove Albion F.C. zapłacił w ubiegłym sezonie Pogoni Szczecin aż 11 mln euro i Jakub Moder, który za taką samą kwotę rok wcześniej przeszedł z Lecha Poznań do tego samego angielskiego klubu. Najdroższym zawodnikiem kupionym przez polski klub z innego polskiego zespołu był Bartosz Slisz, który z Zagłębia Lubin przeszedł do Legii Warszawa. We wszystkich tych transferach cała płatność nie była dokonywana jednorazowo.

Ekspert eFaktor uważa, że coraz częściej kluby będą uwzględniały w transakcjach faktoring. Dla sprzedającego o wiele większą wartością jest posiadanie pieniędzy tu i teraz, niż czekanie na nie przez kilka lat. Dodatkowo posiadanie środków finansowych na koncie pozwala taniej kupić zastępstwo na pozycję na boisku po sprzedanym graczu.

Telewizja i sponsorzy też chcieliby później – to boli kluby

Podobnie jak w przypadku płatności za transfery wygląda model rozliczania należności za sponsoring.

W ostatnich kilku latach, w dużej mierze z powodu pandemii, wzrosły opóźnienia w płatnościach za prawa telewizyjne, a przede wszystkim z umów sponsorskich. Firmy wspierające sport wstrzymywały wypłaty, bo pieniądze potrzebne były dla własnych pracowników, w dodatku przychody wielu sponsorów spadły.Dlatego w pandemii nalegali, żeby płacić jak najpóźniej, np. kilka miesięcy po wystawieniu kolejnej faktury. Klubom sportowym trudno było odmówić takim oczekiwaniom. Jednak to oznaczało dla nich kłopot z płynnością i możliwością realizowania zobowiązań wobec zawodników, sztabów szkoleniowych, czy za korzystanie z obiektów sportowych.

Największą część budżetu większości klubów zapewniają telewizja i sponsorzy, dlatego długie oczekiwanie na te pieniądze jest wyjątkowo bolesne. Gotówka zazwyczaj potrzebna jest na już. Poszukiwany był zatem mechanizm, który pozwoli skrócić czas oczekiwania na należności od sponsorów. Od kilku lat coraz częściej jest nim więc faktoring. W świecie sportu to coraz częściej norma i także w Polsce sponsoring rozlicza się w podobny sposóbmówi Mateusz Skowronek. – To pieniądze w sporcie sprawiają, że możliwe jest podnoszenie poziomu zawodów. Biznes, piłka, pieniądze to określenia, które dobrze do siebie pasują. Tak jak w innych sektorach gospodarki działają tu podobne mechanizmy. Przyspieszenie obiegu pieniądza, powoduje większą płynność i podnosi elastyczność klubu. Zwiększa też jego możliwość wyszukiwania i pozyskiwania kolejnych piłkarzy, których za jakiś czas będzie można sprzedać z zyskiem – dodaje ekspert.

Jak to działa i o czym kluby wolą nie mówić

Firma, która podpisuje kontrakt sponsoringowy z klubem np. na kilkaset tysięcy złotych płatność tej kwoty rozkłada na cały czas trwania umowy. Może to być rok lub nawet kilka lat. Klub sportowy jest w komfortowej sytuacji mając sponsorów z umowami na kilka lat do przodu, ale należne z tego tytułu środki chciałby otrzymywać jak najszybciej – np. nie za pół roku, ale od razu.

Dotyczy to nie tylko piłki nożnej, choć oczywiście w futbolu są największe pieniądze z racji jego masowości i popularności. Coraz częściej trafiają do nas wnioski o finansowanie także z innych dziedzin sportu, a także zespołów koszykarskich, żużlowych czy siatkarskich, a nawet e-sportowych. Prowadzenie klubu piłkarskiego od strony biznesowej i finansowej aż tak bardzo nie różni się od innego biznesu – wszędzie czeka się na przelew, a im bardziej można skrócić czas oczekiwania na pieniądze, tym więcej komfortu i możliwości mają zarządzający. Równocześnie wiele klubów deklaruje, że nie ma problemów z przelewami od sponsorów. To nie znaczy jednak, że całe kwoty otrzymują od razu. Co ciekawe: współpracujemy w ten sposób zarówno z przedstawicielami popularnych dyscyplin jak i tych mniej oczywistych, jak np. kluby e-sportowe. Z jednej strony może to zaskakiwać, z drugiej są to na ogół młodzi ludzie, dla których faktoring jest naturalnym narzędziem finansowym – kontynuuje Mateusz Skowronek.

Jak dodaje ekspert do tej pory jego firma finansowała w ten sposób podmioty z kilku dyscyplin sportowych: piłki nożnej, koszykówki, sportów motoryzacyjnych czy e-sportu. 

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