- W przypadku ogłoszenia 20 stopnia zasilania firmy muszą zmniejszyć wykorzystywaną moc – w efekcie może się okazać zbyt mała do normalnego funkcjonowania i produkcji.
- W przypadku konieczności ograniczenia mocy w pierwszej kolejności wyłącza się tzw. instalacje komfortu. To może być jednak za mało i wstrzymaniu mogą zostać poddane niektóre procesy produkcyjne.
- Część firm ma plany ograniczania mocy na taką sytuację, inne intensywnie nadrabiają zaległości. Firmy zabezpieczają też zapasowe źródła energii, które pozwolą normalnie pracować.
20 stopień zasilania oznacza, że odbiorca może pobierać moc tylko do wysokości określonego minimum, niewywołującego zagrożeń bezpieczeństwa osób oraz uszkodzenia lub zniszczenia obiektów technologicznych. Takie minimum to tzw. moc bezpieczna. Ograniczenia dotyczą odbiorców, których wielkość mocy umownej została ustalona powyżej 300 kW. Podstawą prawną wprowadzania ograniczeń w dostarczaniu i poborze energii elektrycznej jest Prawo energetyczne (ustawa z 10 kwietnia 1997 r.). 20 stopień zasilania może być ogłoszony na całym terytorium Polski lub jego części przez rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów i ma na celu ustrzec gospodarkę przed ryzykiem niekontrolowanego blackoutu.
Wprowadzenie ograniczeń może być spowodowane obniżeniem zdolności produkcji energii i zagrożeniem stabilności jej dostaw. Ostatni taki przypadek miał miejsce ponad 7 lat temu – 10 sierpnia 2015. Doprowadziła do tego upalna, bezwietrzna pogoda, która spowodowała duże zużycie energii przez klimatyzację. Równocześnie tego dnia była mniejsza produkcja energii przez elektrownie.
Czy w tym roku czeka nas 20 stopień zasilania?
Obecna sytuacja za naszą wschodnią granicą zwiększa prawdopodobieństwo, że w którymś momencie w ciągu najbliższych miesięcy ponownie może zostać wprowadzone ograniczenie w zużyciu energii.
– Dla firm to duży kłopot, bo z dnia na dzień będą musiały znacząco ograniczyć zużycie energii. Chcąc zrobić to w taki sposób, aby nie zdezorganizować funkcjonowania całego zakładu, trzeba się do tego wcześniej przygotować. Większość firm ma opracowane plany działania na wypadek ogłoszenia 20 stopnia zasilania, ale nie wszystkie. Od lata gwałtownie wzrosło zapotrzebowanie na audyty związane z zużyciem energii. Pomagamy wielu organizacjom w analizie swojej sytuacji i opracowaniu planu działania na wypadek ograniczenia poboru mocy. Po jego ogłoszeniu firma ma tylko 12 godzin na wdrożenie go w życie i zmniejszenie zużycia energii – mówi Paweł Bukowski ze SPIE Building Solutions.
Firma, która nie ma takiego planu, ryzykuje katastrofę – może stać się tak, jeśli będzie musiała odłączyć urządzenia, które są wykorzystywane w krytycznych procesach produkcyjnych. Dotyczy to przede wszystkim zakładów pracy i firm produkcyjnych, ale także hal, biur – każdego podmiotu, który ma ustaloną moc bezpieczną. Na jednostki, które się nie zastosują do zaleceń, Prezes URE (Urzędu Regulacji Energetyki) może nałożyć surową karę finansową.
Co wyłączyć w pierwszej kolejności?
Ekspert SPIE podaje przykład – firma może mieć 800 kilowatów zamówionej mocy, ale tzw. bezpieczne funkcjonowanie to 120 kilowatów. Jest tu więc przestrzeń do ograniczenia mocy, bez ryzyka unieruchomienia działalności. Trzeba jednak wiedzieć, co i jak odłączyć. Prawidłowo skonstruowany plan działania zawiera informacje jakie systemy powinny być odłączane w pierwszej kolejności i o ile spadnie wtedy zużycie energii. Zazwyczaj unieruchamia się przede wszystkim tzw. instalacje komfortu bądź instalacje, bez których można dalej prowadzić proces produkcyjny, czyli np. klimatyzację, wentylację, oświetlenie korytarzy. Trudniej wtedy pracować, ale załoga to robi, firma produkuje, sprzedaje i zarabia.
Spada liczba dostępnych generatorów prądu
W wielu przypadkach odłączenie instalacji komfortu nie wystarczy, konieczne może być odłączenie urządzeń wspomagających produkcję. Dlatego przedsiębiorcy szukają alternatywnego źródła zasilania na wypadek zbyt małej dostępnej mocy.
– Poza doradzaniem co wyłączyć, projektujemy też zasilanie rezerwowe, jeśli wynika to z większej mocy potrzebnej do produkowania. Dobieramy wtedy dodatkowe źródła energii w formule analiza – projekt – wdrożenie. W wielu przypadkach jako dodatkowe źródło zasilania dobrze sprawdzają się generatory spalinowe. Od sierpnia zainteresowanie nimi wzrosło kilkakrotnie. Za tym poszedł też wzrost cen, ale jeśli na szali jest ciągłość funkcjonowania zakładu produkcyjnego, to się opłaca lub też jest po prostu konieczne – mówi Paweł Bukowski ze SPIE Building Solutions.
Wg eksperta obecnie koszt wynajmu generatora dochodzi do 10 tys. zł za miesiąc. Po uruchomieniu dodatkowo płaci się za przepracowane motogodziny. Wielu przedsiębiorców woli mieć takie urządzenia u siebie już teraz, nawet jeśli przez kilka miesięcy będą stały i czekały, za co trzeba będzie płacić. To zabezpieczenie, które pozwoli uniknąć unieruchomienia linii produkcyjnej. W przypadku firm, które takich generatorów potrzebują kilka czy kilkanaście, koszt jest jednak znaczący. Można być pewnym, że cena za wynajem będzie rosła, bo liczba dostępnych urządzeń sukcesywnie się zmniejsza.
335 Replies to “Firmy wdrażają plany na wypadek 20 stopnia zasilania”
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