Czy epidemia przyspieszy powstawanie inteligentnych miast przyszłości?

  1. Czym jest smart city – inteligentne miasto?
  2. Obszary i sektory, w których warto rozwijać ideę smart city.
  3. Przestrzenie, w których pandemia przyspieszyła rozwój inteligentnych miast.
  4. Na kim wzorować się po epidemii – dobre przykłady.
  5. Pierwsze projekty inteligentnych miast powstające w Polsce od kilku lat.

Grzegorz Pióro – Technical Development Manager, SPIE Building Solutions Sp. z o. o.

1. Czym jest smart city – inteligentne miasto?

Istnieje kilka koncepcji opisujących ideę smart city. Oto jedna z nich: inteligentne miasto oznacza zrównoważony rozwój obszarów zurbanizowanych przy poprawie atrakcyjności przestrzeni miejskiej i zachowaniu wysokiej jakości życia i zdrowia mieszkańców.

Masowa urbanizacja powoduje, że miasta na całym świecie znalazły się w centrum wyzwań społecznych i środowiskowych. Żyje w nich już ok. 3,5 mld ludzi. Wg prognoz demograficznych do 2050 roku ta liczba ulegnie co najmniej podwojeniu, sięgając być może nawet 7,5 mld. To równowartość 75% globalnej populacji (Smart cities: shaping the society of 2030, UNESCO Publishing, 2019). Wyzwania związane z zapewnieniem mieszkańcom terenów zurbanizowanych komfortowych warunków życia będą rosnąć. Tymczasem, wg Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia, już teraz 92% miejskiej populacji nie ma dostępu do czystego powietrza.

Tak szybka urbanizacja wymaga dostosowania procesów zachodzących w tkance miejskiej, aby wraz z rozwojem miast zwiększał się komfort życia jego mieszkańców. Mam na myśli poprawę mobilności, innowacje cyfrowe, modernizacje obiektów i wdrażanie inteligentnych usług. Rozwijanie atrakcyjności ekonomicznej obszarów metropolitalnych nie powinno narażać zasobów naturalnych, dlatego należy dążyć do zmniejszania wpływu miast na środowisko. W poszukiwaniu innowacji trzeba założyć tworzenie zrównoważonego modelu urbanizacji i rozwoju regionalnego – dopiero to sprawi, że inteligentne miasta będą realną szansą na lepsze życie wspólnoty.

2. Obszary i sektory, w których warto rozwijać ideę smart city.

Budowa inteligentnego miasta to zespół różnorodnych działań możliwych do zastosowania w wielu obszarach. Warto wymienić przynajmniej kilka: inteligentne oświetlenie publiczne i drogowe, łączność i telekomunikacja, ochrona wideo, transport i mobilność, infrastruktura dla edukacji i opieki zdrowotnej, narzędzia dla usług publicznych, uzdatnianie wody i przetwarzanie odpadów, pomiar jakości powietrza.

Obszar działań należy do wielu sektorów – to władze samorządowe, opieka zdrowotna, edukacja, szkolenia i badania, budynki komercyjne i handel detaliczny, miejsca wypoczynku, kultura, sport, religia, konwencje, sieci komunikacyjne czy transport publiczny.

3. Przestrzenie, w których pandemia przyspieszyła rozwój inteligentnych miast.

Od marca w mediach pojawiają się zapowiedzi dotyczące rewolucji cyfrowej, którą inicjuje, przyspiesza, a czasem nawet wymusza epidemia. Podobny trend stał się udziałem idei smart city. Miasta na całym świecie doświadczyły kryzysu wywołanego przez pandemię. Wezwania do zachowania dystansu społecznego, ograniczenia w przemieszczaniu się, zamykane urzędy, zawieszana komunikacja publiczna – to tylko niektóre z jego przejawów. Wprowadzone w życie rozwiązania ułatwiają funkcjonowanie mieszkańcom, w wielu przypadkach spełniając kryterium budowy inteligentnego miasta. Część z nich zapewne pozostanie z nami na dłużej, być może nawet na stałe. Przykładów jest wiele:

  • stałe spotkania live w mediach społecznościowych organizowane przez prezydenta Wrocławia – Jacka Sutryka i prezydenta Poznania – Jacka Jaśkowiaka,
  • e-urząd – sieci strukturalne umożliwiające podłączenie wielu komputerów, zwiększanie mocy i bezpieczeństwa serwerowni, 
  • przeprowadzenie sesji Rady Miasta w formie wideokonferencji połączonej z transmisją (Rada Miasta Szczecina),
  • CityBoxOffice – mobilny punkt obsługi poprzez wideokonferencje – Otwock,
  • urzędowe paczkomaty w kilku miastach czy zewnętrzne okienka z bezkontaktowymi dziennikami podawczymi,
  • wsparcie samorządów dla systemu edukacji – przekazywanie bezpłatnych komputerów dzieciom, zwiększanie przepustowości i mocy miejskich sieci internetowych,
  • monitoring wizyjny oraz drony do automatycznej detekcji skupisk ludzi i niezwłocznego powiadamiania odpowiednich służb – służące zachowaniu zdrowia mieszkańców i zwiększania ich bezpieczeństwa,
  • ozonowanie ulic i mebli miejskich (Warszawa, Łódź, Białystok, Wołomin, Stalowa Wola),
  • przekazanie każdemu mieszkańcowi wielorazowej maseczki ochronnej (Olsztyn, Racibórz, Kętrzyn, Skierniewice)
  • maseczkomaty instalowane w miejscach spotkań mieszkańców.

Technologie, których wdrażanie ciągnęło się latami, w wielu miastach zostały uruchomione w ciągu tygodni, a nawet dni. Znalazły się dodatkowe pieniądze na działania podnoszące poziom bezpieczeństwa i zdrowia mieszkańców. I nie chodzi tu tylko o akcje prospołeczne, jak przeciwdziałanie gromadzeniu się mieszkańców czy rozdawanie środków ochronnych, ale również o stricte rozwojowe: uruchamianie usług, które pozwalają korzystać z urzędów i infrastruktury samorządowej w bezpieczny, zdalny sposób.

4. Na kim wzorować się po epidemii – dobre przykłady.

Ustanie pandemii prawdopodobnie osłabi tempo przekształcania miast w służące mieszkańcom inteligentne struktury. Samorządom może zabraknąć nie tylko środków, ale także pomysłów i determinacji. Dlatego warto wzorować się na miejscach, które mocno rozwinęły u siebie ideę smart city. Przykładem aktywnej budowy inteligentnego miasta jest holenderska Breda, której miejska infrastruktura zawiera sieć czujników, m.in. jakości powietrza i wody. Stały dostęp do danych pozwala na bieżąco kontrolować stan tych zasobów i już w zarodku zwalczać ewentualne zagrożenia. W Bredzie uruchomiono też pilotażowy projekt inteligentnego oświetlenia. Zbliżający się samochód powoduje automatyczne zwiększenie natężenie oświetlenia ulicznego, gdy ulica jest pusta, jego natężenie spada. Instalowane są kierunkowe oświetlacze LED nad przejściami dla pieszych, a żółte włączniki na słupach stosowane do zmiany cyklu świateł na zielone dla pieszych zastępowane są kamerami z zaawansowanym przetwarzaniem obrazu. Dzięki temu eliminowana jest konieczność dotykania powierzchni włącznika przez wiele osób.

W planie jest instalacja czujników powiadamiających o konieczności konserwacji ulic. Wiele z tych działań zostało tam zrealizowanych dzięki technologii SPIE.

Tego rodzaju zmiany poprawiają jakość życia w miastach, zwiększając poczucie bezpieczeństwa i pozytywnie wpływając na zdrowie mieszkańców. Równie ważna jest ekonomia stosowanie automatycznych czujników, zaawansowanych kamer czy inteligentnego oświetlenia pozwala na stałe zmniejszanie wydatków publicznych.

Podobnie jest z budownictwem komercyjnym – w wielu krajach normą jest stosowanie założeń BIM (Building Information Modelling), czyli cyfrowego modelowania wszystkich instalacji. W Wielkiej Brytanii kryteria BIM musi spełniać każdy nowo projektowany budynek. Wykorzystanie tej technologii pozwala zmniejszyć koszty budowy i funkcjonowania obiektu, co przyczynia się do powstawania inteligentnych miast. BIM w coraz większym zakresie stosowana jest także w Polsce.

Firma SPIE Building Solutions także ma sporo doświadczeń w zakresie rozwiązań dla inteligentnych miast. Zrealizowany przez nas system zaopatrujący szpital Klinikum am Bruderwald w klimatyzację, ogrzewanie, energię elektryczną i parę zapewnia 50% energii elektrycznej i 54% ciepła pozyskiwanego na miejscu. Zmniejsza emisję CO2 o 7 000 ton rocznie. Dzięki takim parametrom budynek otrzymał w 2019 roku nagrodę obiektu roku przyznawaną przez niezależny niemiecki magazyn Energie & Management.

Inny przykład to energooszczędne oświetlenie uliczne we francuskim Tain l’Hermitage.

1226 lamp zastąpiliśmy oświetleniem LED. W pierwszym roku miasto poczyniło 72% oszczędności energii i odnotowało mniejsze o 160 kWh zużycie prądu.

W Polsce z sukcesem zakończyliśmy największy z dotychczas realizowanych projekt wymiany oświetlenia ulicznego w jednym pakiecie. W Sosnowcu miejsce 7694 wysłużonych opraw sodowych i rtęciowych zajęły lampy w technologii LED. Przed wymianą w skali roku Sosnowiec wydawał prawie 7 mln zł na oświetlenie uliczne. Po zamontowaniu lamp w technologii LED w budżecie gminy zostaje ok. 1,5 mln zł rocznie. Oprócz oszczędności wzrosło również bezpieczeństwo. Lampy LED gwarantują lepszą widoczność na drogach.

5. Pierwsze projekty inteligentnych miast powstające w Polsce od kilku lat.

Przeciętne polskie miasto nie zalicza się do europejskiej czołówki smart city. Nie oznacza to jednak, że nic się u nas nie dzieje – realizujemy coraz więcej ciekawych projektów. Oto przykłady:

  • Elektromobilność – coraz więcej samorządów kupuje pojazdy elektryczne służące do transportu publicznego czy wykonywania zadań lokalnych (Policja, Straż Miejska, służby sprzątające).
  • Jedna z naszych spółek – SPIE Elbud Gdańsk zrealizowała w Sosnowcu projekt wymiany oświetlenia ulicznego na ledowe – inteligentne (7 tys. opraw). Zainstalowano tam także czujniki natężenia ruchu na wzór Bredy.  
  • Modernizację oświetlenia pozwalającą na mniejsze zużycie energii przeprowadziliśmy na stadionie – nomen omen – Energi w Gdańsku.  
  • W wielu miejscach instalujemy i nadzorujemy telewizję dozorową, zwiększającą bezpieczeństwo mieszkańców w parkach czy przestrzeniach publicznych.
  • Działamy także w kierunku poprawy efektywności transportu publicznego – w Grudziądzu uruchomiliśmy na pętlach stacje pantografowe do ładowania autobusów podczas dnia, a w zajezdni stacje mniejszej mocy do ładowania nocą. Eksploatacja autobusów elektrycznych pozwala zmniejszyć koszty i ograniczyć emisję zanieczyszczeń w przestrzeni publicznej.
  • W miastach pojawiają się systemy doświetlenia przejść dla pieszych oraz oprawy oświetlające same pasy. 

Wiele z tych projektów realizuje moja firma, która ma trzy główne kompetencje w zakresie budowy inteligentnych miast przyszłości: zintegrowane rozwiązania, które dotyczą wszystkich aspektów inteligentnego życia w mieście; zdolność reagowania na potrzeby szerokiej gamy klientów, od władz lokalnych po podmioty z sektora prywatnego; oraz wysoki poziom wiedzy technicznej i doświadczenie w tradycyjnych obszarach, które podlegają zmianom.

Polskie miasta nie staną się w pełni smart dzisiaj ani jutro. Problemem pozostanie pozyskiwanie środków. Optymizm budzi za to coraz powszechniejszy dostęp do technologii i pozytywne nastawienie samorządów. W czasach, gdy wielu z nas przełącza się na pracę zdalną, inwestycje w sieci 5G, Wi-Fi i światłowody są konieczne, aby stworzyć optymalną infrastrukturę cyfrową – to właśnie ona jest kamieniem węgielnym każdego inteligentnego miasta. Paradoksem jest, że aby móc to wyraźnie zobaczyć, potrzebowaliśmy tak potężnego kryzysu, jak pandemia COVID-19, która zmusiła miliony ludzi do pracy z domu. Oczekuje się, że systemy oparte na technologiach światłowodowych, powszechnie wprowadzane na rynek w Holandii, Francji i Niemczech, również w Polsce szybko rozwiną się w nadchodzących latach. Szczególne wymagania, takie jak miejskie systemy nadzoru wideo, również wpływają na rozwój tej i innych technologii wspierających szybką transmisję dużych ilości danych.

Zrównoważone, inteligentne planowanie urbanistyczne jest szybko rosnącym rynkiem z kilkoma bardzo silnymi czynnikami wzrostu. Do rozwijanej od wielu już lat e-mobilności, która jest szczególnie ważna we Francji, Niemczech, Szwajcarii i krajach Beneluksu, gdzie środki rządowe sprzyjają rozwojowi, podobnie zaczynają podchodzić inne kraje. W tym Polska.

Transmisja obecnych miast w smart city przyspiesza. Jest efektywna i korzystna dla mieszkańców. Ważne jest, aby w tym procesie działać w przemyślany i skoordynowany sposób, z wizją tego, co chcemy osiągnąć.

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